Narendra Modi Wikipedia Profile


Narendra Modi
Narendra Damodardas Modi.jpg
14th Chief Minister of Gujarat
Assumed office
7 October 2001
Governor Sunder Singh Bhandari
Kailashpati Mishra
Balram Jakhar
Nawal Kishore Sharma
S. C. Jamir
Kamla Beniwal
Preceded by Keshubhai Patel
Constituency Maninagar
Personal details
Born Narendra Damodardas Modi
17 September 1950 (age 62)
VadnagarBombay State, India
Political party Bharatiya Janata Party
Residence Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Alma mater Gujarat University
Religion Hinduism

Narendra Damodardas Modi (About this sound pronunciation ; born 17 September 1950) is the 14th and current Chief Minister of Gujarat, a state in western India, representing the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He is the prime ministerial candidate of the BJP and the NDA for the upcoming 2014 Indian general elections.[1][2]

Modi was a key strategist for the BJP in the successful 1995 and 1998 Gujarat state election campaigns. He first became chief minister of Gujarat in October 2001, being promoted to the office upon the resignation of his predecessor, Keshubhai Patel, following the defeat of BJP in by-elections. In July 2007, he became the longest-serving Chief Minister in Gujarat's history when he had been in power for 2,063 days continuously. He is currently into his fourth consecutive term as Chief Minister.

Modi is a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and is described as a Hindu nationalist by scholars and himself.[3][4][5] Modi is a controversial figure both within India and internationally.[6][7][8][9] While his administration has been criticised for the incidents surrounding the 2002 Gujarat violence,[9][10] he has also been praised for his economic policies which are credited with creating the environment for the high economic growth in Gujarat.[11]

Early life and education

Modi was born on 17 September 1950[12] to a family of grocers in Vadnagar in Mehsana district of what was then Bombay State (present-day Gujarat), India.[13] He was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Modi and his wife, Heeraben.[14][15] While a teenager, Modi ran a tea stall with his brother around a bus terminus.[16] He completed his schooling in Vadnagar, where a teacher described him as being an average student but a keen debater.[15]

He began work in the staff canteen of Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC), where he stayed till he became a full–time pracharak (propagator) of the RSS.[15][17] After Modi had received some RSS training in Nagpur, which was a prerequisite for taking up an official position in the Sangh Parivar, he was given charge of Sangh's student wing, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), in Gujarat. Modi organised agitations and covert distribution of Sangh's pamphlets during the Emergency.[15] During his years in the RSS, Modi came in touch with Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, leaders of the Jan Sangh, who later founded the BJP's Gujarat state unit.[17] Modi remained a pracharak in the RSS while he completed his Master's degree in political science from Gujarat University.[18]

Early political career

The RSS seconded Modi to the BJP in 1987.[17][19] While Shankarsingh Vaghela and Keshubhai Patel were the established names in the BJP, Modi rose to prominence after organising Murli Manohar Joshi's Ekta yatra (journey for unity).[15] His electoral strategy was central to BJP's victory in the 1995 state elections.[17][19][20]

Modi became the General Secretary of the BJP and was transferred to New Delhi where he was assigned responsibility for the party's activities in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.[19] Vaghela, who had threatened to break away from BJP in 1995, defected from the BJP after he lost the 1996 Lok Sabha elections. In 1998, Modi was promoted to the post of National Secretary of the BJP.[15] While selecting candidates for the 1998 state elections in Gujarat, Modi sidelined people who were loyal to Vaghela and rewarded those who favoured Patel, thus ending factional divisions within the party. His strategies were key to winning those elections.[19]

Chief Minister of Gujarat

First Term (2001-2002)

Patel's failing health, along with allegations of abuse of power, corruption and poor administration, as well as a loss of BJP seats in by-elections and the effects of the devastating Bhuj Earthquakeof 2001, which his administration struggled to handle, prompted the BJP's national leadership to seek a new candidate for the office of chief minister.[19][21][22] Modi, who had aired his misgivings about Patel's administration, was chosen as a replacement.[15] L. K. Advani, a senior leader of the BJP, however, did not want to ostracise Patel and was worried about Modi's lack of experience in governance. It was suggested that Modi should be made the deputy chief minister in a government led by Patel. Modi informed Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee that he was "going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not at all" and declined the proposal. On 7 October 2001, Modi was appointed the Chief Minister of Gujarat and was assigned responsibility to prepare the BJP for elections in December 2002.[21] As Chief Minister, Modi's ideas of governance revolved around privatisation and small government, which stood at odds with what Aditi Phadnis has described as the "anti–privatisation, anti–globalisation position" of the RSS.[21]

2002 Gujarat violence

In 2002, there was widespread Anti-Muslim violence throughout Gujarat after reports that a crowd of Muslims had attacked a train carrying mostly Hindu Pilgrims and set it on fire near Godhra railway station burning alive many of the paasengers.[23] The Gujarat administration was accused by the opposition and sections of the media of taking insufficient action against the violence, and even condoning it in some cases.[24][25][26] The Modi government had imposed curfews, issued shoot-at-sight orders and called for the army to prevent the violence from worsening but the combined strength of the army and state police proved insufficient.[25][26] In April 2009, the Supreme Court of India appointed a Special Investigation Team (SIT) to inquire into the Gujarat government and Narendra Modi's role in the incidents of communal violence.[24] The SIT reported to the court in December 2010 submitting that they did not find any incriminating evidence against Modi of willfully allowing communal violence in the state.[27]

Modi's decision to move the corpses of the kar sevaks who had been burned to death in Godhra to Ahmedabad had been criticised for inflaming the violence.[28][29] However, the SIT found his decision to be justified.[30]

In April 2012, the SIT absolved Modi of any involvement in the Gulbarg Society massacre that occurred in 2002.[31][32] On 7 May 2012, the Supreme Court-appointed amicus curiae, Raju Ramachandran, observed that Modi could be prosecuted for promoting enmity among different groups during the 2002 Gujarat violence. His main contention was that the evidence should be examined by a court of law because the SIT was required to investigate but not to judge.[33] The amicus report has been criticised by the Special Investigation Team for relying heavily on the testimony of Sanjiv Bhatt.[34] In July 2013, Zakia Jaffri, widow of Ehsan Jafri, alleged that the SIT was suppressing evidence.[35]

In July 2013, in an interview to the newswire Reuters, Modi defended himself against the accusations over the 2002 riots and said his government used its full strength and he has no guilty feeling. He said he was sad about the riots, adding he would be sad even if a "puppy" came under a car. [36] Modi said

... any person if we are driving a car, we are a driver, and someone else is driving a car and we're sitting behind, even then if a puppy comes under the wheel, will it be painful or not? Of course, it is. If I'm a Chief Minister or not, I'm a human being. If something bad happens anywhere, it is natural to be sad.

This "puppy" comment erupted an political uproar in the country with many parties like Samajwadi Party, CPM, CPI and JD(U) saying he had compared Muslims to a 'puppy' and should apologize for the "humiliating" remarks.[37]

2002 election

In the aftermath of the violence, there were calls for Modi to resign from his position as chief minister of Gujarat. The opposition parties stalled the national parliament over the issue. Both theDravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and the Telugu Desam Party (TDP), allies of the BJP, also asked for Modi's resignation, as did Jayalalithaa, the then-Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and leader of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).[38][39] Modi submitted his resignation and the state Assembly was dissolved.[40] In the resultant elections the BJP, led by Modi, won 127 seats in the 182-member assembly.[41] Modi used extreme anti-Muslim rhetoric during the campaign.[42][43][44]

Second term (2002–2007)

During his second term, Modi's emphasis shifted from Hindutva to the economic development of Gujarat.[21] Modi's decisions curtailed the influence of organizations of the Sangh Parivar such as the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) and Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP),[45] which had become entrenched in Gujarat after the decline of Ahmedabad's textile industry.[21] Modi dropped Gordhan Zadaphia, an ally of his former Sangh co–worker and VHP state chief Praveen Togadia, from the cabinet ministry. When BKS launched a farmers' agitation, Modi ordered their eviction from houses provided by the state government.[45] Modi's decision to demolish 200 illegal temples in Gandhinagar deepened the rift with VHP.[45][46] Various organisations of the Sangh were no longer consulted or apprised of Modi's administrative decisions prior to enactment.[45]

Between 2002–2007, Gujarat emerged as an attractive investment destination. Aditi Phadnis, author of Political Profiles of Cabals & Kings and columnist in the Business Standard, writes that "there was sufficient anecdotal evidence pointing to the fact that corruption had gone down significantly in the state... if there was to be any corruption, Modi had to know about it".[21] Modi instituted financial and technology parks in the state. During the 2007 Vibrant Gujarat summit, real estate investment deals worth INR6.6 trillion (short scale) (INR6600 billion) were signed in Gujarat.[21] In 2003, when Narendra Modi was asked about the conflict of his dreams for Gujarat's future with international criticism of his past activities, Modi said,[47]

Yet, no one has asked this question to the USA after 9/11. Delhi is developing fast – no one has asked this question to Delhi after 1984. If it does not matter to Delhi and USA, why should it matter to Gujarat?

Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then Prime Minister of India, who had asked Modi not to discriminate between citizens in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat violence and had pushed for his resignation as Chief Minister of Gujarat,[48][49] distanced himself from Modi and reached out to North Indian Muslims before the 2004 elections to the Lok Sabha. After the elections, Vajpayee held the violence in Gujarat as one of the reasons for BJP's electoral defeat and acknowledged that not removing Modi immediately after the Gujarat violence was a mistake.[50][51] Modi had attempted to equate the Gujarat violence with the events of 9/11 in the USA and responded to a newspaper's criticism that compared him to HitlerPol Pot and Slobodan Milosovic by saying that "I have not read and I would not like to read [the criticism]. But thank you people for spending time on me."[47]

Terrorism and elections in 2007–2008

In the lead up to assembly and general elections in 2007–2008, the BJP stepped up its rhetoric on terrorism.[52] On 18 July 2006, Modi criticised the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, "... for his reluctance to revive anti-terror legislations" such as the Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act. He asked the national government to allow states to invoke tougher laws in the wake of the2006 blasts in Mumbai.[53] Modi said that:

Terrorism is worse than a war. A terrorist has no rules. A terrorist decides when, how, where and whom to kill. India has lost more people in terror attacks than in its wars.[53]

Around this time Modi frequently demanded the execution of Afzal Guru,[54] a collaborator of the Pakistani jihadists who had been convicted of terrorism for his involvement in the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[55][a]

Modi had completed 2,063 consecutive days as chief minister of Gujarat in July 2007, making him the longest-serving holder of that post.[56] The BJP won the 2007 election, gaining 122 of the 182 seats in the state assembly, and Modi continued in office as chief minister.[57]

As a consequence of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, Modi held a meeting to discuss security of Gujarat's 1,600 km (990 mi) long coastline which resulted in the central governmentauthorising construction of 30 high–speed surveillance boats.[58]

Third term (2007–2012)

Gujarat is a semi-arid state and, according to Tushaar Shah, was "... never known for agrarian dynamism" but in recent years has improved its agricultural output substantially, in large part due to projects relating to improvement of groundwater supplies in SaurashtraKachchh and the north, as well as efforts to increase the use of micro-irrigation and to provide more efficient power supply to farms. Public irrigation measures in the central and southern areas, such as the Sardar Sarovar Project, have not been so successful in achieving their aims.[59]

Development projects

Successive BJP governments under Patel and Modi supported NGOs and communities in the creation of infrastructure projects for conservation of groundwater. By December 2008, 500,000 structures had been constructed, of which 113,738 were check dams. While most check dams remained empty during the pre-monsoon season, they helped recharge the aquifers that lie beneath them.[59] 60 of the 112 Tehsils which were found to have over–exploited the groundwater table in 2004 had regained their normal groundwater level by 2010[60] and Gujarat had managed to increase its groundwater levels at a time when they were falling in all other Indian states. As a result, production of genetically-modified Bt cotton, which could now be irrigated using tube wells, increased to become the largest in India.[59] The boom in cotton production and utilization of semi–arid land[61] saw the agriculture growth rate of Gujarat increase to 9.6% in the period 2001–2007.[62] For the decade 2001–2010, Gujarat recorded a Compound annual growth rate of 10.97%, the highest among all Indian states.[61]

The system of supplying power to rural areas has been changed radically and has had a greater impact on agriculture than the irrigation works. While states such as Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu provided free electricity to farms, and most other states provided subsidised power, the Gujarat government between 2003–2006 reacted to concerns that such measures result in waste of the power supplied and of groundwater itself with the Jyotigram Yojana scheme, based on ideas developed by the International Water Management Institute. Agricultural supplies were rewired to separate then from other rural supplies and then the electricity used by farms was rationed to fit with scheduled demand for irrigation and consequently to reduce the amount of subsidy being paid. The farmers objected to this at first but came to realise that the outcome was that they were receiving a supply that suffered less from interruption, was of a more consistent voltage and was available when they most needed it for irrigation purposes. Other states have since begun to adopt similar, although not identical, strategies.[59]

Debate on Gujarat "miracle"

Modi's government has worked to brand Gujarat as a state of dynamic development and economic growth and prosperity, using the slogan "Vibrant Gujarat".[63][64][65] However critics point out that Gujarat has a relatively poor record when it comes to human development, poverty alleviation, nutrition and education. The state is 13th in India for poverty, 21st for education and 44.7% percent of children under five are underweight and 23% are undernourished putting the state in the "alarming" category on the Hunger Index.[66] However, officials from the state of Gujarat claim that Gujarat outperformed India as a whole in the rates of improvement of multiple human indicators such as female education, between 2001 and 2011. Furthermore, they state that dropout rates declined from 20% in 2001 to 2% in 2011, and Maternal Mortality declined by 32% from 2001 to 2011[67]

Political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot points out that the development in Gujarat has been limited to the urban middle class, whereas rural dwellers and lower castes have become increasingly marginalized. This is evidenced by the fact that despite the high economic growth Gujarat is only 21st in Human development index, because rural Gujaratis continue to lag behind. He claims under Modi the number of families living below the poverty line has increased, and that particularly rural adivasi and dalits have become increasingly marginalized.[68] In July 2013, Economics Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen criticized Narendra Modi's governance record and said he did not approve of it, under his administration, Gujarat's "record in education and healthcare is pretty bad".[69] However, economists Arvind Panagariya and Jagdish Bhagwati note that Gujarat's social indicator improved from a much lower baseline than other Indian states. They point to Gujarat's superior performance in raising literacy rates when compared to other states in India and the rapid improvement of health indicators in Gujarat as evidence that "its progress has not been poor by any means."[70]

Cabinet issues

In 2010 Modi made a speech at Mangrol in which he justified the extrajudicial killing of Sohrabuddin Sheikh, during the election campaign in response to Sonia Gandhi's speech calling him a "merchant of death",[71] and referred to Sohrabuddin's killing. For this speech the Election Commission of India, a constitutional body governing election proceedings in India, cautioned Modi as it considered it as indulging in an activity which may aggravate existing differences between different communities.[72] In 2010 Amit Shah, Modi's close confidant and Home minister in his government was indicted for having ordered the killing of Sohrabuddin and two others, after spending three months in jail he was released on bail, and subsequently reelected in one of Ahmedadbad's constituencies.[68][73] In 2012 Maya Kodnani another of Modi's former minister's from 2007 - 2009 was convicted of having participated in the Naroda Patiya massacre during the 2002 violence.[74][75] She is the first female and first MLA to be convicted in a post-Godhra riots case.[76] While first announcing that it would seek the death penalty for Kodnani, Modi's government eventually pardoned her in 2013 and settled for a prison sentence.[77][78][79]

Sadbhavana Mission and Fasts

During late 2011 and early 2012, Modi undertook a series of fasts as part of a Sadbhavna Mission (Goodwill Mission), meant to reach out to the Muslim community in Gujarat.[80] Modi announced that he believed that his fast would "further strengthen Gujarat’s environment of peace, unity and harmony."[81]

The mission started on 17 September 2011 in Ahmedabad with a three-day fast aimed at strengthening the atmosphere of peace, unity, and harmony in the state. He observed 36 fasts in 26 districts and 8 cities.[82] Some Muslims were unimpressed with his fasts, and one incident in which Modi refused to wear a skull cap offered to him by a Muslim cleric attracted widespread criticism in the media.[83] When he was fasting in Godhra, the site of the train burning that sparked the 2002 riots, a number of activists were detained for allegedly planning rallies against Modi.[84][85] Others criticized his fast as a PR mission.[86] Modi himself denied that the mission was about wooing "any particular community or religion".[87]

Legislation and appointments

In 2011, the Gujarat state organisation of Congress banned the Gujarati-language TV 9 television channel from covering its events and prohibited access to its press conferences.[88] Modi criticised this decision, saying that

Journalists on Twitter who spoke against Congress, were blocked. Here they banned a TV channel. Their crime is that they exposed cracks in the ghar nu ghar (own your home) scheme of the Congress. Yet this party talks about democracy.[89]

On 25 August 2011, the Governor of Gujarat, Kamla Beniwal, appointed Justice R. A. Mehta to the post of Lokayukta of Gujarat, a critical anti–corruption post that had been lying vacant since 2003. Mehta was recommended for the post by the Chief Justice of the Gujarat High Court in June 2011.[90] Beniwal made this decision without consultation with and approval from Modi and his council of ministers.[91] This marked the beginning of a strained relationship between Modi and Beniwal. On 25 September 2011, Modi accused the Governor of running a parallel government in the state supported by the Indian National Congress party and demanded that she be recalled.[92]

The appointment of Mehta was challenged in the High Court by the Gujarat government. The two-member high court bench gave a split verdict on 10 October 2011. In January 2012, a third member upheld Beniwal's decision.[93]

Modi has also accused Beniwal of delaying a bill for reservation of 50% of seats in local government for women.[94]

Modi interacted with netizens on Google+ on 31 August 2012.[95] The chat session was also broadcast live on YouTube.[95] The questions were submitted before the chat, and those broadcast were mostly based on issues about education, youth empowerment, rural development and causes of urbanisation.[96] The hashtag #ModiHangout became the most trending term in India at Twitter on the day of the session, whereas #VoteOutModi, used by Modi's opponents, became the third most trending term in the country.[95] The event made Modi the first Indian politician to interact with netizens through live chat on the internet.[97]

Fourth term (2012–present)

In the 2012 Gujarat legislative assembly elections, Modi won from the constituency of Maninagar with a majority of 86,373 votes over Sanjiv Bhatt's wife, Shweta, who was contesting for the Indian National Congress.[98] The BJP as a whole won 115 of the 182 seats; it has formed the government in Gujarat since 1995[99] and has had an absolute majority throughout Modi's time in office.[100]

Later in the by-elections for six seats, the BJP won all the seats in Gujarat which consisted of four assembly seats and 2 Lok Sabha seats. Interestingly, BJP won all these seats although Modi never campaigned for its candidates and all the seats were held by the Congress prior to the by-elections.[101] This brought up the number of seats held by the BJP in the state assembly to 119.

Role in central politics

Modi and other BJP leaders after the party's National Executive Meet. Modi was named the chairman of Central Election Campaign Committee during this meet.

In March 2013, Modi was appointed as member of the BJP Parliamentary Board, its highest decision-making body, and also as a Chairman of the party's Central Election Campaign Committee.[102][103]Modi was selected to head the poll campaign for 2014 parliamentary election, at the national level executive meeting of BJP on 10 June 2012. The party's senior leader and founding member L.K. Advani resigned from all his posts at the party following the selection, protesting against leaders who were "concerned with their personal agendas"; the resignation was described by The Times of India as "a protest against Narendra Modi's elevation as the chairman of the party's election committee".[104]However, Advani withdrew his resignation the next day at the urging of RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat.[104]

In September 2013, BJP announced Modi as prime ministerial candidate for the 2014 Lok Sabha polls.[105]

Uttarakhand floods controversy

On June 23 2013, The Times of India published a report titled Modi in Rambo act, saves 15,000.[106] The report stated that Modi had commissioned Boeings, SUVs, and luxury buses to rescue 15,000 Gujarati victims of the 2013 Uttarakhand floods.[107][108] The actions as reported by Times of India were widely disbelieved because of the enormity of the task.[109] A controversy followed with allegations that Modi was attempting to create a "Rambo" image in the minds of the Indian public.[110] Modi was criticised for giving preferential treatment to Gujaratis, and for visiting the area even though the government in Uttarakhand had discouraged such visits to prevent diversion of attention and resources from rescue efforts.[111][112][113] BJP representatives denied that Modi himself had ever stated that he had intervened in the rescue operation, and conceded that perhaps BJP workers had contributed to the impression of Modi's personal involvement.[114][115] On July 14, Times of India published a clarification saying that Modi's government had assisted 15,000 flood victims of several states, and not rescued 15,000 Gujaratis as earlier reported.[116] The clarification said that there was no exaggeration of facts or attempts to mislead by the BJP spokesperson, and added that The Times of India was mortified by the controversy surrounding the report.[116][117] After the publication of the clarification, The Times of India report was called a hoax.[116] Media outlets were criticized by the BJP for publishing editorials critical of Modi without checking facts.[118]

Possible prime-minister

In three opinion polls conducted by news agencies and magazines, Narendra Modi was the preferred choice among Indians for the post as Prime Minister in the forthcoming parliamentary elections.[119][120][121] A C-Voter poll suggested that by projecting Modi as the Prime Minister candidate, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) could gain a five percent increase in the vote share; it said that projecting Modi could increase NDA's seats from 179 to 220, which is 52 short of majority.[121] Commenting on the polls, Political scientist Ashutosh Varshney argued that a BJP Prime Minister was unlikely unless they were able to form broad coalitions with other parties, which so far they have not been able to do.[122] In an interview, Nobel Prize laureate economistAmartya Sen, said that he did not want Modi as a Prime Minister because he had not done enough to make minorities feel safe, and also noted that under Modi, Gujarat's record in health and education provision has been "pretty bad".[69] However, economists Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya stated "We are impressed by Modi's economics." [123] Spiritual leaders like Ramdevand Morari Bapu have supported Modi's Prime Ministerial candidacy.[124]

International diplomacy

Modi speaking at the World Economic Forum's India Economic Summit 2008 in New Delhi.

To attract foreign investment in Gujarat during his time as chief minister, Modi has made visits to countries such as China, Singapore and Japan.[125]

Modi visited China in November 2006 to study the Special Economic Zones that were planned to start in Gujarat.[126] He also visited in September 2007[127] and later in November 2011. A month after his visit of 2011, the Chinese Government released 13 diamond traders from India who had been jailed by the Shenzhen Customs, which Modi described as being the consequence of his diplomatic efforts and statesmanship.[128][129]

In 2005, Modi was denied a diplomatic visa to the United States. In addition, the B-1/B-2 visa that had previously been granted to him was also revoked, under a section of the Immigration and Nationality Act which makes any foreign government official who was responsible or "directly carried out, at any time, particularly severe violations of religious freedom" ineligible for the visa.[130]

In 2011, the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry, impressed with the development of Gujarat, invited Modi to visit Pakistan and address prominent business leaders. They also asked him to consider a flight between Karachi and Ahmedabad, due to the historical cultural and economic relations between the two regions of Gujarat and Sindh. Modi wishes to help Pakistan out of its power crisis, especially in Sindh, suggesting Pakistan can follow the 'Gujarat Model' in two ways — Gujarat Solar Park and Kalpasar Project.[131]

The United Kingdom refused to deal with Modi for a decade following the 2002 violence but lifted its diplomatic boycott in October 2012.[132] Later, in March 2013, the European Union, of which the UK is a member, also ended its boycott, saying that talking with Modi was a separate issue from that of protecting human rights and those of women.[133]

In July 2013, BJP president Rajnath Singh visited the US and gave a speech urging that Modi should be given a visa to visit the country.[134][135] In response to Singh's visit, 65 Members of the Indian parliament allegedly signed a letter to US President Barack Obama requesting that the policy of denying Modi a visa be upheld.[136] However, the veracity of some of the signatures has been called into question, with Sitaram Yechury among a number of purported signatories denying that they ever signed such a petition[137]

Personality and image

Modi is a vegetarian.[138] He is known for leading a frugal lifestyle and has a personal staff of three. He is known to be a workaholic and an introvert.[139] He also writes poems in Gujarati.[140] He is a crowd-puller as a speaker.[141] He wears "business suits to business meetings, instead of homespun tunics. He still lampoons the urban, English-speaking elite, but he is also honing his English skills."[24] Modi is seen as a "protector" by his supporters.[24]

Modi has been labelled by the media and some articles in peer reviewed journals as a controversial, polarising, and divisive figure.[142][143][144]

Awards and recognitions

  • Gujarat Ratna by Shri Poona Gujarati Bandhu Samaj at Ganesh Kala Krida Manch on celebration of centenary year.[145]
  • e-Ratna award by the Computer Society of India[146]
  • Best Chief Minister – In a nationwide survey conducted in 2006 by India Today magazine, Narendra Modi was declared the Best Chief Minister in the country.[147]
  • Asian Winner of the fDi Personality of the Year Award for 2009 by FDi magazine.[148]
  • In March 2012, Modi appeared on the cover of the Asian edition of the Time magazine, one of India's few politicians to have done so.[149] His leadership was described as being strong and businesslike; one that could guide India towards honesty and efficiency.[150]



  1. Jump up^ Afzal Guru was executed on 9 February 2013. There had been BJP allegations that the government's delaying of the execution for so long was an attempt to ensure that the Muslim vote was not lost.[55]


  1. Jump up^ "Rajnath declares Modi as BJP’s PM candidate"The New Indian Express. September 13 2013. Retrieved September 13 2013.
  2. Jump up^ "It's official, Modi is NDA's PM nominee". Yahoo News. September 13 2014. Retrieved September 14 2014.
  3. Jump up^ "Yes, I am a Hindu nationalist: Narendra Modi"India Express. 13 July 2013. "Modi said he described himself as a Hindu nationalist because he was born Hindu: "I am nationalist. I'm patriotic. Nothing is wrong. I am a born Hindu. Nothing is wrong. So I'm a Hindu nationalist so yes, you can say I'm a Hindu nationalist because I'm a born Hindu."
  4. Jump up^ Menon, Kalyani Devaki (2012). Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0812222340. "Yet, months after this violent pogrom against Muslims, the Hindu nationalist chief minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi, went to the polls and won a resounding victory"
  5. Jump up^ Mishra, Pankaj (2011). Kamala Visweswaran, ed.Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 188.ISBN 978-1405100625. "The chief minister of Gujarat, a young up-and-coming leader of the Hindu nationalists called Narendra Modi, quoted Isaac Newton to explain the killings of Muslims. “Every action,” he said, “has an equal and opposite reaction.”"
  6. Jump up^ Rupam Jain Nair (12 December 2007). "Edgy Indian state election going down to the wire". Ahmedabad. Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  7. Jump up^ Simon Robinson (11 December 2007). "India's Voters Torn Over Politician"Time (Surat). Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  8. Jump up^ Jason Burke (28 March 2010). "Gujarat leader Narendra Modi grilled for 10 hours at massacre inquiry"The Guardian (Delhi). Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  9. Jump up to:a b Andrew Buncombe (19 September 2011). "A rebirth dogged by controversy"The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  10. Jump up^ David, Ruth (24 December 2007). "Controversial Gujarati Premier Confirmed in Office"Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  11. Jump up^ Joseph, Manu (15 February 2012). "Shaking Off the Horror of the Past in India"The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  12. Jump up^ "Bihar BJP goes big on Narendra Modi's birthday, says many want him as PM". Patna: NDTV. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  13. Jump up^ Bhatt, Sheela (16 September 2011). "Why fasting is no big deal for Narendra Modi" Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  14. Jump up^ "Profile: Narendra Modi"Express news service. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  15. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Jose, Vinod K. (1 March 2012). "The Emperor Uncrowned"The Caravan (Delhi Press). pp. 2–4. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  16. Jump up^ On Race Course road? The Times of India, 18 September 2011, 05.46 am IST
  17. Jump up to:a b c d Pathak, Anil (2 October 2001). "Modi's meteoric rise"The Times of India. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  18. Jump up^ "Modi proves to be an astute strategist"The Hindu(Chennai, India). 23 December 2007.
  19. Jump up to:a b c d e Venkatesan, V. (13 October 2001). "A pracharak as Chief Minister"Frontline (New Delhi). Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  20. Jump up^ "Gujarat Assembly Elections 2012: Narendra Modi – Profile". Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  21. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Phadnis, Aditi (2009). Business Standard Political Profiles of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard Books. pp. 116–21. ISBN 978-81-905735-4-2.
  22. Jump up^ Bunsha, Dionne (13 October 2001). "A new oarsman".Frontline (Ahmedabad). Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  23. Jump up^ Hampton, Janie (2002). Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1853839528.
  24. Jump up to:a b c d Sengupta, Somini (28 April 2009). "Shadows of Violence Cling to Indian Politician"The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  25. Jump up to:a b "Army too helpless as violence mounts"The Economic Times. 1 March 2002.
  26. Jump up to:a b "Curfew imposed in 26 cities"The Hindu. 1 March 2002.
  27. Jump up^ Mahapatra, Dhananjay (3 December 2010). "SIT clears Narendra Modi of willfully allowing post-Godhra riots"The Times of India.
  28. Jump up^ "Modi wanted Godhra bodies to come to A'bad"The Times of India (Ahmedabad). TNN. 22 August 2004. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  29. Jump up^ "Decision to bring Godhra victims' bodies taken at top level"The Hindu (New Delhi). 10 February 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  30. Jump up^ Soni, Nikunj (10 February 2012). "Has SIT justified bringing bodies from Godhra to Ahmedabad?"Daily News and Analysis (Ahmedabad). Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  31. Jump up^ "It's official: Modi gets clean chit in Gulberg massacre".Daily Pioneer. 10 April 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012.
  32. Jump up^ "Gujarat riots: Teesta Setalvad's plea for SIT report rejected"CNN-IBN (Ahmedabad). 16 July 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
  33. Jump up^ "Proceed against Modi for Gujarat riots: amicus"The Hindu. 7 May 2012.
  34. Jump up^ "SIT rejects amicus curiae's observations against Modi".The Hindu. 10 May 2012.
  35. Jump up^ India, Times of (18 July 2013). "Is SIT hiding proof in Gujarat riots case?"The Times of India.
  36. Jump up^ Hindu, The (12 July 2013). "No guilty feeling about Gujarat riots, says Modi"The Hindu.
  37. Jump up^ India, The Times Of (12 July 2013). "Modi's 'puppy' comment triggers uproar, parties slam him"The Times Of India.
  38. Jump up^ "Gujarat Cabinet puts off decision on elections"The Tribune (India). 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2006.
  39. Jump up^ "Congress demands Modi's resignation over Bannerjee report"United News of India. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
  40. Jump up^ "Modi resigns; seeks Assembly dissolution"The Hindu. 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2006.
  41. Jump up^ "Statistical Report on General Election, 2002 to the Legislative Assembly of Gujarat" (PDF). New Delhi:Election Commission of India. p. 228. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  42. Jump up^ Brasted, Howard V. (2005). Nelly Lahoud, A H Johns, ed.Islam in World Politics. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-0415324113. "the successful anti-Muslim campaign run in Gujarat in December 2002 by its provincial chief minister Narendra Modi – a hardline Hindu nationalist preacher turned politician – has ominous implicitions."
  43. Jump up^ Corbridge, Stuart; John Harriss, Craig Jeffrey (2012). India Today: Economy, Politics and Society. Polity Press. p. 185.ISBN 978-0745661124. "December 2002, the BJP – led by Narendra Modi, who conducted a vicious campaign, making many stridently anti-Muslim statements"
  44. Jump up^ Hardgrave, Jr., Robert L. (2005). "Hindu Nationalism and the BJP: Transforming Religion and Politics in India". In Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. Prospects For Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–211.ISBN 9780804750851. "In the campaign, Modi fused religion and politics and, as a spur to anti-Muslim sentiment, made Islamic terrorism and its ties to Pakistan a central plank in the BJP platform" etc"
  45. Jump up to:a b c d Umat, Ajay (9 February 2013). "Once Hindutva twins, Narendra Modi and PravinTogadia no longer conjoined".The Times of India (Ahmedabad). TNN. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  46. Jump up^ "Religious leaders demand rebuilding of temples".Daily News and Analysis (Ahmedabad). PTI. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  47. Jump up to:a b "Modi views on 9/11"The Times of India. 19 August 2003. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  48. Jump up^ Dasgupta, Manas (4 April 2002). "Vajpayee's advice to Modi"The Hindu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  49. Jump up^ "Vajpayee, Advani differed over Modi's resignation".India Today. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  50. Jump up^ Tellis, Ashley J.; Wills, Michael (2007). Domestic political change and grand strategy. The National Bureau of asian Research. pp. 193–4. ISBN 978-0-9713938-8-2.
  51. Jump up^ Yogendra, Kanwar (13 June 2004). "Not removing Modi was a mistake, says Vajpayee"The Hindu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  52. Jump up^ Naqvi, Saba (22 December 2008). "When fear didn't enter the booth"Outlook. pp. 26–28. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  53. Jump up to:a b "Mahatma on lips, Modi fights Centre"The Telegraph(Kolkota, India). 19 July 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  54. Jump up^ "Now, Amar Singh says Afzal Guru must be hanged".The Indian Express. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  55. Jump up to:a b Mohan, Vishwa (10 February 2013). "Afzal Guru hanged, remains in Tihar; no last wish, refused to eat"The Times of India (New Delhi). TNN. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  56. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi wins Maninagar by 70,000 votes".Hindustan Times (Ahmedabad). Indo-Asian News Service. 20 December 2012.
  57. Jump up^ "BJP adds 5 seats in Gujarat Assembly by-polls".Deccan Herald. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  58. Jump up^ "Modi wants 3-layer ring to secure coast"The Times of India. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  59. Jump up to:a b c d Shah, Tushaar (2011). Business Standard India 2011. Business Standard Books. pp. 195–199. ISBN 978-93-80740-04-1.
  60. Jump up^ Mahurkar, Uday (4 June 2010). "A green rising"India Today. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  61. Jump up to:a b "Gujarat, Maharashtra record highest growth in farm sector"The Hindu. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  62. Jump up^ Shah, Tushaar; Gulati, Ashok; Hemant, P.; Shreedhar, Ganga; Jain, R. C. (December 2009). "Secret of Gujarat's Agrarian Miracle after 2000"Economic and Political Weekly 44 (52): 45–55.
  63. Jump up^ Bobbio, Tommaso. "Making Gujarat Vibrant: Hindutva, development and the rise of subnationalism in India." Third World Quarterly 33.4 (2012): 657-672.
  64. Jump up^ Ibrahim, Farhana. "Capitalism, Multiculturalism and Tolerance: A Perspective on'Vibrant Gujarat'." Economic and Political Weekly (2007): 3446-3449.
  65. Jump up^ Mehta, Nalin. "Ashis Nandy vs. the state of Gujarat: authoritarian developmentalism, democracy and the politics of Narendra Modi." South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 577-596.
  66. Jump up^ Shah, Ghanshyam. "Politics of Governance: A Study of Gujarat." Studies in Indian Politics 1.1 (2013): 65-77.
  67. Jump up^ Pathak, Vikas (August 11, 2013). "Gujarat looks at marketing human development now". Hindustan Times. Retrieved August 15, 2013.
  68. Jump up to:a b Jaffrelot, Christophe. "Gujarat Elections: The Sub-Text of Modi’s ‘Hattrick’—High Tech Populism and the ‘Neo-middle Class’." Studies in Indian Politics 1.1 (2013): 79-95.
  69. Jump up to:a b "I don't want Narendra Modi as my PM: Amartya Sen".The Indian Express. 22 July 2013.
  70. Jump up^ Bhagwati, JagdishPanagariya, Arvind (2013). "Reforms and Their Impact on Health and Education"Why Growth Matters:How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing CountriesNew York City: PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610392723. Retrieved September 15 2013.
  71. Jump up^ "Sonia's 'merchants of death' was aimed at Modi: Cong"The Indian Express. 8 December 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  72. Jump up^ "Election Commission Official Notice to Mr.Narendra Modi" (PDF). Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  73. Jump up^ Vicky Nanjappa (24 July 2010). "What CBI chargesheet against Amit Shah says". Retrieved 1 August 2010. quote: "The CBI states Sohrabuddin was trying to extort money from owners of marble factories in Rajasthan... and threatened the owners of RK Marbles. ... At this juncture, the CBI chargesheet alleges Amit Shah came into the picture and ordered Sohrabuddin's killing."
  74. Jump up^ "For Maya Kodnani, riots memories turn her smile into gloom"DNA India. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  75. Jump up^ "Maya Kodnani led mob to carry out Naroda riot: Gujarat govt to HC"Economic times of India. 21 February 2009,. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  76. Jump up^ "Naroda Patiya riots: Former minister Maya Kodnani gets 28 years in jail". Retrieved 2012-11-17.
  77. Jump up^
  78. Jump up^
  79. Jump up^
  80. Jump up^ Kaushik, Himanshu (17 September 2011). "Narendra Modi begins 'sadbhavna' fast among chants of Allahu akbar, shlokas"The Times of India (Ahmedabad). TNN. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  81. Jump up^
  82. Jump up^ "CM thanks people of Gujarat for giving huge support to Sadbhavna Mission". Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  83. Jump up^
  84. Jump up^
  85. Jump up^
  86. Jump up^
  87. Jump up^
  88. Jump up^ "Modhwadia censors media: Gujarat Congress bans TV9". 24 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  89. Jump up^ "Modi slams Cong over TV channel ban". 27 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  90. Jump up^ Shah, Jumana (15 June 2011). "Is Justice RA Mehta likely to be appointed Gujarat lok ayukta?"Daily News and Analysis (Ahmedabad). DNA. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  91. Jump up^ Delhi, New (2 September 2011). "Gujarat Lokayukta controversy hots up"The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  92. Jump up^ Dasgupta, Manas (25 September 2011). "Beniwal helping Congress run parallel government in Gujarat, says Modi".The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  93. Jump up^ "Lokayukta: Modi in apex court after HC upholds Guv decision"The Indian Express. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  94. Jump up^ Chaturvedi, Amit (8 April 2013). "Narendra Modi slams Gujarat Governor Kamla Beniwal over women's reservation". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  95. Jump up to:a b c "Narendra Modi on Google Hangout, Ajay Devgn to host event"The Times of India. TNN. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  96. Jump up^ Dinakaran, R. (1 September 2012). "Modi chats live on Google Plus Hangout"Business Line (Chennai). Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  97. Jump up^ "People ask, Narendra Modi answers on Google Plus Hangout". New Delhi: CNN-IBN. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  98. Jump up^ "Big win for Narendra Modi, defeats Shweta Bhatt by huge margin". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 20 December 2012.
  99. Jump up^ 1. "Action continues: Narendra Modi makes lotus bloom again in Gujarat"Daily News and Analysis.
    2. "Gujarat results 2012 Live :Modi's claim for PM's post gets stronger"Samay Live. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  100. Jump up^ Ghassem-fachandi, Parvis (2012). Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India. Princeton University Press. p. 198. ISBN 9780691151779.
  101. Jump up^ BJP sweeps Gujarat bypolls, RJD trumps JD(U) in Bihar. The Hindu (5 June 2013).
  102. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi set appointed as Chairaman of BJP's Central Election Campaign Committee"The Economic Times. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  103. Jump up^ "Parliamentary Board". BJP. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  104. Jump up to:a b "Advani grabs lifeline, meekly withdraws resignation".The Times of India. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  105. Jump up^ "BJP announces Modi as prime ministerial candidate".The Hindu. 13 September 2013.
  106. Jump up^ Soondas, Anand (July 23 2013). "Modi in Rambo act, saves 15,000". The Times of India. Retrieved September 15 2013.
  107. Jump up^ Prashant Jha (28 June 2013). "Reporter claims Modi's ‘15,000’ rescue figure came from BJP itself".
  108. Jump up^ Anand Soondas (23 June 2013). "Narendra Modi lands in Uttarakhand, flies out with 15,000 Gujaratis".
  109. Jump up^ "Forget Modi, even Rambo can't save 15,000 pilgrims, experts say". June 24 2013. Retrieved September 15 2013.
  110. Jump up^ "Modi never said he rescued 15,000 people, says BJP of 'Rambo Act'".
  111. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi denied permission to visit flood-hit areas; Shinde says VIP tours hamper rescue work". 22 June 2013.
  112. Jump up^ "Mayawati targets Modi, sympathises with Uttarakhand flood victims". 8 July 2013.
  113. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi stance in Uttarakhand rescue detrimental: Uddhav Thackeray". 25 June 2013.
  114. Jump up^ "Modi never said he rescued 15,000 people, says BJP of 'Rambo Act'". June 26, 2013. "BJP president Rajnath Singh conceded that party workers may have contributed to the impression that the Gujarat Chief Minister visited the state with a team of bureaucrats who evacuated thousands of Gujaratis stuck in Uttarakhand in a day."
  115. Jump up^ "BJP Chief Denies Modi Claimed Rescuing Gujaratis from Uttarakhand". June 26, 2013.
  116. Jump up to:a b c "'Rambo' Modi story a hoax - Times of India clarifies". July 14 2013. Retrieved September 23 2013.
  117. Jump up^ "Clarification". The Times of India. July 14 2013. Retrieved September 15 2013. "Among the details that emerged from these conversations was that the Gujarat government's efforts had helped around 15,000 people in various ways. This included giving them food, shelter, medicines and transport to reach their homes. Mr Baluni did not say that 15,000 people had been "rescued". He neither tried to exaggerate facts nor mislead us."
  118. Jump up^ "BJP Targets Media For 'Rambo' Remark Against Modi". IBN Live. July 14 2013. Retrieved September 15 2013.
  119. Jump up^ "Opinion polls: UPA losing ground, Modi's projection as PM candidate will double NDA advantage". 22 May 2013.
  120. Jump up^ by: Prahlad (22 May 2013). "Narendra Modi could tilt the scales for BJP with 220 seats – Oneindia News".
  121. Jump up to:a b
  122. Jump up^ "Doing the Modi math"The Indian Express. 27 June 2013.
  123. Jump up^ "Academic brawl: Bhagwati-Panagariya pitch for Modi while Amartya Sen backs Nitish"The Economic Times. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  124. Jump up^ D S Kunwar (27 April 2013). "Sadhus want Narendra Modi declared NDA's PM candidate"The Times of India. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  125. Jump up^ "Japanese vendors keen on Gujarat: Suzuki tells Modi".Business Standard. 25 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  126. Jump up^ "Gujarat now India's SEZ: Modi"The Indian Express. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  127. Jump up^ "Modi visits Dalian port in China, meets city Mayor". 8 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  128. Jump up^ "Modi shines like a diamond; frees jailed traders in China". 8 December 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  129. Jump up^ "China frees 13 diamond traders, Narendra Modi pats his own back"Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  130. Jump up^ "No entry for Modi into US: visa denied"The Times of India. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
  131. Jump up^ Narendra Modi invites Pak investment, offers energy solutions. (20 September 2012).
  132. Jump up^ Burke, Jason (22 October 2012). "UK government ends boycott of Narendra Modi"The Guardian (London). Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  133. Jump up^ "Germany delinks Narendra Modi's image from human rights issues"NDTVPress Trust of India. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  134. Jump up^ "Rajnath SIngh to try and get Narendra Modi US visa power – India – DNA"Daily News and Analysis.
  135. Jump up^ PTI (22 July 2013). "US will have to give Narendra Modi visa sooner than later: Rajnath Singh – Economic Times".The Economic Times.
  136. Jump up^ "65 MPs write to Barack Obama: Don't give visa to Modi – The Economic Times on Mobile"The Economic Times. 5 December 2012.
  137. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi visa row: 9 MPs deny signing letter, govt says why involve the US"Hindustan Times. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  138. Jump up^ Harding, Luke. "Profile: Narendra Modi | World news".The Guardian.
  139. Jump up^ "The Hawk in Flight". Outlook India. 24 December 2007.
  140. Jump up^ Patel, Aakar (19 December 2012). "Narendra Modi, smart politician and average poet"Hindustan Times. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  141. Jump up^ "Crowd puller Modi – (Photo gallery)"Hindustan Times. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  142. Jump up^ Ramaseshan, Radhika (2 July 2013). "Boomerang warning in article on ‘polarising’ Modi"The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  143. Jump up^ Malik, Ashok (8 November 2012). "Popular but polarising: can Narendra Modi be PM?"Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  144. Jump up^ Bajaj, Vikas (22 December 2012). "In India, a Dangerous and Divisive Technocrat"New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  145. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi to be presented 'Gujarat Ratna' today".The Times of India. 18 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  146. Jump up^ "Twitter's Modi Express steams past 600,000 followers". 1 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  147. Jump up^ "Making Up For Lost Time"India Today. Retrieved 12 February 2006.
  148. Jump up^ "Modi wins fDi personality of the year award"Sify. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  149. Jump up^ Pathak, Maulik (22 December 2012). "The many faces of Narendra Modi"live mint & The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  150. Jump up^ "Narendra Modi on Time magazine cover"The Times of India. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 


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