Jorge Mario Bergoglio

Pope Francis

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Francis

Pope Francis, then Cardinal Bergoglio, celebrating mass in Buenos Aires, 2008
Papacy began 13 March 2013
Predecessor Benedict XVI
Orders
Ordination 13 December 1969
by Ramón José Castellano
Consecration 27 June 1992
by Antonio Quarracino
Created Cardinal 21 February 2001
Personal details
Birth name Jorge Mario Bergoglio
Born 17 December 1936 (age 76)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Nationality Argentine
Previous post Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires (1992–1997)
Titular Bishop of Auca (1992–1997)
Archbishop of Buenos Aires(1998–2013)
Cardinal-Priest of St. Roberto Bellarmino (2001–2013)
Ordinary of the Ordinariate for the Faithful of the Eastern Rites in Argentina (1998–2013)
Motto Miserando atque eligendo
("With mercy and choosing")[a]
Papal styles of
Pope Francis
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Holy See

Francis (Ecc. LatinFranciscus [franˈtʃiskus]; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio;[b] 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, elected on 13 March 2013. As such, he is both head of the Church and Sovereign of the Vatican City State.

A native of Buenos AiresArgentina, he was ordained as a priest in 1969. In 1998 he became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires, and in 2001 a cardinal. Following theresignation of his predecessor, Pope Benedict XVI, on 28 February 2013, the conclaveelected Bergoglio, who chose the papal name Francisco in honour of Saint Francis of Assisi.[2] He is both the first Jesuit pope and the first pope from the Americas. Francis is the first pope born outside Europe in 1,272 years, since Syrian-born St. Gregory III.[3] Francis speaks Spanish, Latin, Italian,[4] German,[5] French,[4] and English.[6]

Contents

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Early life

Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born in Buenos Aires, one of the five children of Mario José Bergoglio, a railway worker born in Portacomaro (Asti) in Italy's Piedmont region, and his wife Regina María Sivori, a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genovese) origin.[7][8][9][10][11] Francis has been a supporter ofSan Lorenzo de Almagro since birth.[12][13][14][15] As a teenager he had a girlfriend, Amalia, who alleged Bergoglio asked for her hand in marriage.[16][17][18][19][20] He graduated from the technical secondary school Escuelas Técnicas #27, Hipólito Yrigoyen,[21] and earned a degree as a chemical technician.[22] According to some sources, he earned a masters' degree in chemistry from the University of Buenos Aires.[23][24] At the age of 21, he decided to become a priest and began his religious studies and was eventually ordained in 1969.[21] He suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and cysts and had part of a lung removed shortly afterwards.[25]

Pre-papal career

Jesuit

Bergoglio entered the Society of Jesus on 11 March 1958 and studied to become a priest at the Jesuit seminary in Villa Devoto. In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo San José in San Miguel; in 1964 and 1965, he taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada, a high school in theProvince of Santa FeArgentina, and in 1966 he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.[26]

In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel),[27] a seminary in San Miguel, Buenos Aires province. Bergoglio attained the position of novice master there and became professor of theology.

The Society of Jesus promoted Bergoglio and he served as provincial for Argentina from 1973 to 1979.[28] He was transferred in 1980 to become the rector of the seminary in San Miguel, and served in that capacity until 1986. He spent several months at Sankt Georgenin Frankfurt, Germany, while considering possible dissertation topics[29] and returned to Argentina to serve as confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community inCórdoba.[30] In Germany he saw the painting Mary Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where it has become an important Marian devotion.[31] According to Regina Novaes of the Institute of Religious Studies in Rio de Janeiro, this devotion "attracts people with small problems".[32] He had an image of Mary Untier of Knots inscribed on a chalice he presented to Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.[33]

Ordination History of Pope Francis
Priestly ordination
Ordained by Ramón José Castellano
Date of ordination 13 December 1969
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecrator Antonio Quarracino
Date of consecration 27 June 1992
Cardinalate
Date elevated to cardinal 21 February 2001

Bishop

Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and was ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca,[34] with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator.[citation needed]

Bergoglio succeeded Cardinal Quarracino as Archbishop of Buenos Aires on 28 February 1998 and was concurrently named ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Argentina, who had lacked their own prelate.[citation needed]

Cardinal

At the consistory of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal byPope John Paul II with the title of cardinal-priest of San Roberto Bellarmino. As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative positions in the Roman Curia:

Cardinal Bergoglio in 2008

That fall, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops and, according to the Catholic Herald, created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue".[35][36]

Cardinal Bergoglio became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism and a commitment to social justice.[37] A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the palatial bishop's residence. He gave up his chauffeured limousine in favor of public transportation[38] and cooked his own meals.[39]

On the death of Pope John Paul II, Bergoglio was considered one of the papabile cardinals.[40]He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. Catholic journalist John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner in the 2005 Conclave.[41][37] An unauthorized diary of uncertain authenticity released in September 2005[42]confirmed that Bergoglio was the runner-up and main challenger of Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave. The purported diary of the anonymous cardinal claimed Bergoglio received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the fourth and decisive ballot.[43] La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him.[44] Earlier, he had participated in the funeral of Pope John Paul II and acted as a regent alongside the College of Cardinals, governing the Holy See and the Roman Catholic Church during the interregnum sede vacante period.

During the 2005 Synod of Bishops, he was elected a member of the post-synodal council. On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal Conference for a three-year term (2005–08) by a large majority of the Argentine bishops. He was reelected on 11 November 2008.

In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued Summorum Pontificum, Cardinal Bergoglio was one of the first bishops in the world to respond by instituting a Tridentine mass in Buenos Aires.[45][46] It was celebrated weekly.[47]

As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with Communion and Liberation, a conservative Catholic association of the faithful.[37]

In Argentina, initial opinion following the election was divided; some support Bergoglio and admire his austere lifestyle, while others disapprove of his opposition to issues like same-sex marriage and are uneasy about his supposed ties to the country's oppressive military dictatorship in the 1970s.[48][35][49][50] However Adolfo Pérez Esquivel has stated that Bergoglio had no connection with the 1976-1983 Regime in Argentina.[51]

Relations with the Argentine government

As provincial

Bergoglio has been the subject of allegations regarding the kidnapping of two priests by the military during Argentina's Dirty War in 1976, whom he had dismissed just prior to their disappearance due to their antigovernment views. These were the subject of a court case in 2005 that was ultimately dismissed, but the episode continues to be a matter of debate, with different accounts of the events being put forth.[52] In 2005, a human rights lawyer filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the kidnapping by the Navy in May 1976 of two Jesuit priests.[53] The priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, were tortured,[54] but found alive five months later, drugged and semi-naked. Yorio accused Bergoglio of effectively handing them over to the death squads by declining to tell the regime that he endorsed their work. Jalics refused to discuss the complaint after moving into seclusion in a German monastery.[55] The complaint did not specify the nature of Bergoglio's alleged involvement, and Bergoglio's spokesman flatly denied the allegations. Under Argentine law such accusations can be made on little evidence, to be investigated by a court,[53] and the lawsuit was ultimately dismissed.[52]

Horacio Verbitsky, an Argentine investigative journalist and former montonero guerilla, wrote a book about this and other related events titled El Silencio: de Paulo VI a Bergoglio: las relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA.[56] According to the book, after their release Yorio accused Bergoglio, then-Provincial of his San Miguel Jesuit order, of having denounced him. "Bergoglio withdrew his order's protection of the two men after they refused to quit visiting the slums, which ultimately paved the way for their capture."[25] Jesuit Father General Pedro Arrupe in Rome was informed by letter during the abduction. Both Jalics and Orlando Yorio were excluded from the Jesuit Order.[57]

Bergoglio told his authorized biographer, Sergio Rubin, that after the priests' imprisonment he worked behind the scenes for their release; Bergoglio's intercession with dictator Jorge Rafael Videla on their behalf may have saved their lives.[58] "The [now] cardinal could not justify why these two priests were in a state of helplessness and exposed," according to Luis Zamora, who said that Bergoglio's testimony "demonstrates the role of the Church during the last military dictatorship".[59] In 2010, Bergoglio told Sergio Rubin that he had often sheltered people from the dictatorship on church property, and once gave his own identity papers to a man who looked like him, so he could flee Argentina.[54]

After becoming bishop

Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio meets Argentine president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

Néstor Kirchner was elected president of Argentina in 2003, and attended the 2004 mass of Bergoglio at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral during the First National Government national day of Argentina. Bergoglio requested more political dialogue, rejected the intolerance, and criticized the exhibitionism and strident announcements.[60] As a result, Kirchner did not attend the mass the following year, and celebrated the national day elsewhere; the mass in the Cathedral was suspended.[61] Kirchner considered Bergoglio a political rival since then.[62] The relations stayed tense with Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, wife of Néstor Kirchnr, who was elected president in 2007. He called for national peace during the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, which was interpreted by the government as a support to the demonstrators.[62] The sanction of the same-sex marriage law was a particularly tense moment of their relation.[62]

As detailed below, on presenting the Aparecida Document Bergoglio, in addition to commenting on social problems, exhorted "legislators, heads of government, and health professionals" to act according to Catholic principles regarding abortion and other issues and said that "people cannot receive Holy Communion and at the same time ... [commit] serious crimes against life and family. This responsibility applies particularly to legislators, governors, and health professionals". He referred to a topical Argentine abortion case. Argentina's government opposed this: Human Rights Undersecretary of Buenos Aires, Guillermo Guerin said that "the diagnosis of the Church in relation to social problems in Argentina is correct, but to mix that with abortion and euthanasia, is at least a clear example of ideological malfeasance".[63]

Relations with other religious groups

Jewish community

Bergoglio has close ties to the Jewish community of Argentina, and attended Jewish Rosh Hashanah services in 2007 at a synagogue in Buenos Aires.[64] The Catholic Zenit News Agency reported that Bergoglio told the Jewish congregation during his visit that he went to the synagogue to examine his heart, "like a pilgrim, together with you, my elder brothers."[64]

After the 1994 bombing of the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AMIA) building in that city, which killed 85 people, Bergoglio was the first "public personality" to sign a petition condemning the attack and calling for justice.[64] Leaders of the Jewish community around the world, not just in Argentina, noted that his words and actions "showed solidarity with the Jewish community" in the aftermath of this attack.[64]

A former head of the World Jewish CongressIsrael Singer, reported that he worked with Bergoglio in the early 2000s, distributing aid to the poor as part of a joint Jewish-Catholic program called "Tzedaka".[64] Singer notes that he was impressed with Bergoglio's modesty, remembering that "if everyone sat in chairs with handles [arms], he would sit in the one without."[64] Bergoglio's numerous other actions in support of the Jewish community included his co-hosting a Kristallnacht memorial ceremony at theBuenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral in 2012.[64]

Islamic community

Leaders of the Islamic community in Buenos Aires welcomed the news of Bergoglio's election as pope, noting that he was always a "friend of the Islamic community," and a person whose position is "pro-dialogue."[65]

Bergoglio visited both a mosque and a school in Argentina, visits that Sheik Mohsen Ali, the Director for the Diffusion of Islam, called actions that strengthened the relationship between the Catholic and Islamic communities.[65] Dr. Sumer Noufouri, Secretary General of the Islamic Center of the Republic of Argentina (CIRA), added that Bergoglio's past actions make his election as pope a cause within the Islamic community of "joy and expectation of strengthening dialogue between religions."[65] Noufouri said that the relationship between CIRA and Bergoglio over the course of a decade had helped to build up Christian-Muslim dialogue in a way that was "really significant in the history of monotheistic relations in Argentina."[65]

Papacy

Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013,[66][67] the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal nameFrancis.[68] Vatican deputy spokesman Thomas Rosica said the same day that the new pontiff had chosen the name in honor ofSaint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because the new pontiff was a lover of the poor.[69][70][71] Some initially thought that, as a Jesuit, he chose Francis in recognition of Francis Xavier, the co-founder of the Society of Jesus.[72][73] This is the the first time that a pope has been named "Francis"[74] and the first time since Pope Lando's brief 913 reign that a serving pope held a name unused by a predecessor[75] (though the dual-name John Paul had not been used before Pope John Paul I adopted it in 1978, the names had separately been used previously).

Pope Francis, elected at the age of 76, is reported to be in good health due to his austere and healthy lifestyle. In 1969, shortly after becoming a priest, Bergoglio had life-threatening pneumonia, and three cysts. According to an interview he had with his biographers, he was between life and death for three days, and had the upper part of his right lung removed [76]. Doctors say that his missing lung tissue does not have a significant impact on his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection.[77]

Positions on social and political issues

Poverty and economic inequality

At a meeting of Latin American bishops in 2007 Bergoglio said "[w]e live in the most unequal part of the world, which has grown the most, yet reduced misery the least" and that "[t]he unjust distribution of goods persists, creating a situation of social sin that cries out to Heaven and limits the possibilities of a fuller life for so many of our brothers".[78] On 30 September 2009, Bergoglio spoke at a conference organized by the Argentina City Postgraduate School (EPOCA) at the Alvear Palace Hotel titled "Las deudas sociales de nuestro tiempo" ("The Social Debts of Our Time") in which he quoted the 1992 "Documento de Santo Domingo"[79] by the Latin American Episcopal Conference, saying "extreme poverty and unjust economic structures that cause great inequalities" are violations of human rights.[80][81] He went on to describe social debt as "immoral, unjust and illegitimate."[82]

During a 48-hour public servant strike in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio observed the differences between "poor people who are persecuted for demanding work, and rich people who are applauded for fleeing from justice".[83] In 2002, during an economic crisis, Bergoglio harshly criticized those in power, saying, "Let's not tolerate the sad spectacle of those who no longer know how to lie and contradict themselves to hold onto their privileges, their rapaciousness, and their ill-earned wealth."[84] During a May 2010 speech in Argentina regarding the poor, he directed his message to the wealthy by saying: "You avoid taking into account the poor. We have no right to duck down, to lower the arms carried by those in despair. We must reclaim the memory of our country who has a mother, recover the memory of our Mother".[85] In 2011, Bergoglio stated: "There is a daily anesthesia that this city knows how to use very well, and it is called bribery, and with this anesthesia the conscience is numbed. Buenos Aires is a bribe-taking city."[86]

In 2011, Bergoglio decried sweatshops and homelessness in Buenos Aires as forms of slavery, saying "In this city, slavery is the order of the day in various forms, in this city workers are exploited in sweatshops and, if immigrants, are deprived of the opportunity to get out. In this city, there are kids on the streets for years." He added, "The city failed and continues to fail in the attempt to free them from this structural slavery that is homelessness."[86]

In line with the Catholic Church's efforts to care for AIDS victims, he is well remembered for his 2001 visit to a hospice, in which he washed and kissed the feet of 12 AIDS patients.[87]

Aparecida Document and human rights

In 2007, as Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio presented the final version of a joint statement of the bishops of Latin America – the "Aparecida Document" – upon its approval by Pope Benedict XVI. Bergoglio denounced what he characterized as a cultural tolerance of child abuse. He spoke strongly against the abuse of children as "demographic terrorism" and decried their exploitation. "Children are mistreated, and are not educated or fed. Many are made into prostitutes and exploited".[63] In 2011, Bergoglio condemned child trafficking and sex slavery in Buenos Aires, saying "In this city, there are many girls who stop playing with dolls to enter the dump of a brothel because they were stolen, sold, betrayed." "In this city, women and girls are kidnapped, and they are subjected to use and abuse of their body; they are destroyed in their dignity. The flesh that Jesus assumed and died for is worth less than the flesh of a pet. A dog is cared for better than these slaves of ours, who are kicked, who are broken."[86]

Bergoglio also encouraged his clergy and laity to oppose both abortion and euthanasia, describing the pro-choice movement as a "culture of death",[88] and had opposed the free distribution of contraceptives in Argentina.[89] The document links worthiness to receive the Eucharist to compliance and acceptance of Church teaching against "abominable crimes" such as abortion and euthanasia:[63][90][91][92]

"We hope that legislators, heads of government, and health professionals, conscious of the dignity of human life and of the rootedness of the family in our peoples, will defend and protect it from the abominable crimes of abortion and euthanasia; that is their responsibility ... We should commit ourselves to 'eucharistic coherence', that is, we should be conscious that people cannot receive Holy Communion and at the same time act or speak against the commandments, in particular when abortion,euthanasia, and other serious crimes against life and family are facilitated. This responsibility applies particularly to legislators, governors, and health professionals."

He further denounced a "culture of discarding" the elderly and treating them as if they are disposable and worthless due to their advanced age.[63]

Same-sex marriage

Bergoglio has affirmed the Church's teaching of homosexual practices being intrinsically immoral, yet clarified that "men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies must be accepted with respect and compassion."[93][94] The Church has stated that homosexual desires or attractions are not themselves sinful.

He opposes same-sex marriage,[95] and unsuccessfully opposed legislation introduced in 2010 to legalize same-sex marriage in Argentina, calling it a "real and dire anthropological throwback".[96] In July 2010, while the law was under consideration, he wrote a letter to Argentina's cloistered nuns in which he said:[97][98][99]

In the coming weeks, the Argentine people will face a situation whose outcome can seriously harm the family…At stake is the identity and survival of the family: father, mother and children. At stake are the lives of many children who will be discriminated against in advance, and deprived of their human development given by a father and a mother and willed by God. At stake is the total rejection of God's law engraved in our hearts.
Let's not be naive: This is not a simple political fight; it is a destructive proposal to God's plan. This is not a mere legislative proposal (that's just its form), but a move by the father of lies that seeks to confuse and deceive the children of God… Let's look to St. Joseph, Mary, and the Child to ask fervently that they defend the Argentine family in this moment... May they support, defend, and accompany us in this war of God.

After L'Osservatore Romano reported this, several priests expressed their support for the law and one was defrocked.[98] Observers believe that the church's opposition and Bergoglio's language, which has been criticized by politicians[100] worked in favor of the law's passage and that Roman Catholic officials learned from their failed campaign against the same-sex marriage law to adopt a different tone in later debates on social issues such as parental surrogacy.[101][102]

Writings

Books

  • Bergoglio, Jorge (1982) (in Spanish). Meditaciones para religiosos [Meditations for the Religious]. Buenos Aires: Diego de Torres.OCLC 644781822.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (1992) (in Spanish). Reflexiones en esperanza [Reflections of Hope]. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Universidad del Salvador. OCLC 36380521.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2003) (in Spanish). Educar: exigencia y pasión: desafíos para educadores cristianos [To Educate: Exactingness and Passion: Challenges for Christian Educators]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505124572.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2003) (in Spanish). Ponerse la patria al hombro: memoria y camino de esperanza [Putting the Motherland on One's Shoulders: Memoir and Path of Hope]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125111.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2005) (in Spanish). La nación por construir: utopía, pensamiento y compromiso: VIII Jornada de Pastoral Social [The Nation to Be Built: Utopia, Thought, and Committment]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125463.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2006) (in Spanish). Corrupción y pecado: algunas reflexiones en torno al tema de la corrupción [Corruption and Sin: Some Thoughts on Corruption]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505125722.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2007) (in Spanish). El verdadero poder es el servicio [True Power Is Service]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana.OCLC 688511686.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2009) (in Spanish). Seminario: las deudas sociales de nuestro tiempo: la deuda social según la doctrina de la iglesia [Seminar: the Social Debts of Our Time: Social Debt According to Church Doctrine]. Buenos Aires: EPOCA-USAL.ISBN 9788493741235.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge; Skorka, Abraham (2010) (in Spanish). Sobre el cielo y la tierra [On Heaven and Earth]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. ISBN 9789500732932.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2010) (in Spanish). Seminario Internacional: consenso para el desarrollo: reflexiones sobre solidaridad y desarrollo [International seminar: Consensus about Development: Reflexions on Solidarity and development]. Buenos Aires: EPOCA.ISBN 9789875073524.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2011) (in Spanish). Nosotros como ciudadanos, nosotros como pueblo: hacia un bicentenario en justicia y solidaridad [Ourselves as Citizens, Ourselves as a People: towards a Bicentenary in Justice and Solidarity]. Buenos Aires: Editorial Claretiana. ISBN 9789505127443.

Other

  • Bergoglio, Jorge (1995) (in Spanish). La vida sagrada y su misión en la Iglesia y en el mundo. Argentina Catholic University: Faculty of Theology. OCLC 806712655.
  • Egan, Edward Michael; Bergoglio, Jorge (2001). "Episcopus minister Evangelii Iesu Christi propter spem mundi: relatio post disceptationem". The Catholic Church. The Synod of Bishops. Ordinary General Assembly. E Civitate Vaticana. OCLC 749998123.
  • John Paul, Pope; Castro, Fidel (2004). Bergoglio, Jorge. ed (in Spanish). Diálogos entre Juan Pablo II y Fidel Castro [Dialogues Between John Paul II and Fidel Castro]. Buenos Aires: Ciudad Argentina. ISBN 9789875070745.
  • Bergoglio, Jorge (2007). "Buscar el camino hacia el futuro, llevando consigo la memoria de las raíces" (in Spanish). Humanitas(National Humanities Institute) (47): 468–483. OCLC 176911626.
  • Castiñeira de Dios, José María (2007) (in Spanish). El santito Ceferino Namuncurá: relato en verso. Foreword by Jorge Bergoglio. Buenos Aires: Lumen. ISBN 9789870007340.
  • English translation of IEC Catechesis “The Eucharist: Gift from God for the life of the world” (2009) (given in Spanish), 49th International Eucharistic Congress, Quebec, Canada

Notes

  1. ^ The phrase is drawn from a homily of Bede: "Vidit ergo Iesus publicanum, et quia miserando atque eligendo vidit, ait illi, Sequere me." "Jesus looked at the publican, and because he looked with mercy and choosing, said to him, 'Follow me.'" [1]
  2. ^ Pronunciation: [ˈxorxe ˈmaɾjo βerˈɣoɣljo] (Spanish), [berˈgɔʎʎo] (Italian)

References

  1. ^ "Miserando atque eligendo: il motto di Papa Francesco".cantualeantonianum.com. 13 March 2013.
  2. ^ New Pope Fracis visits St. Mary Major, collects suitcases and pays bill at hotel
  3. ^ "New Pope is an Argentine"Financial Times. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  4. a b "Briefing di padre Lombardi" (in Italian). News.va. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  5. ^ "Pope Francis: 13 key facts about the new pontiff"The Guardian. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  6. ^ Pope Francis, first day after election – live updates | World news | guardian.co.uk
  7. ^ (Italian) Stella, Gian Antonio (14 March 2013). "Tango e battesimo, fidanzata e vangelo l'alfabeto misto di Papa Francesco"Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 14 March 2013. "Mio padre era di Portacomaro (Asti, ndr) e mia madre di Buenos Aires, con sangue piemontese e genovese"
  8. ^ "BERGOGLIO Card. Jorge Mario, S.I."College of Cardinals Biographical notes. Vatican.va. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
  9. ^ Rice-Oxley, Mark (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty"The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  10. ^ "Argentina's Cardinal Bergoglio Is Elected Pope Francis". Bloomberg. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  11. ^ Barney Henderson (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis elected leader of Catholic Church: latest"The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  12. ^ Pope Francis: the quiet man of Buenos Aires known for his humble tastes
  13. ^ El fanatismo de Francisco por San Lorenzo da la vuelta al mundo
  14. ^ Francisco, Socio de San Lorenzo, es el Nuevo Papa
  15. ^ Pope Francis is a card-carrying San Lorenzo supporter
  16. ^ Bergoglio queria se casar com namorada de infância
  17. ^ Na juventude, papa Francisco dançava milonga com namorada
  18. ^ Namorada de infância diz que ouviu de Bergoglio: 'Se não casar, viro padre'
  19. ^ Papa teria dito à ex-namorada em infância que se não casasse, viraria padre
  20. ^ 'Namorada de infância' diz que teve proposta de casamento do Papa
  21. a b La Nación newspaper: Jorge Bergoglio, a career Jesuit priest, 13 March 2013 (Spanish) Article gives details: he graduated from industrial secondary school E.N.E.T. Nº 27 "Hipólito Yrigoyen" with the qualification of chemical technician, then started religious studies at the age of 21, having decided to become a priest.
  22. ^ "Biography: who is JORGE MARIO BERGOGLIO?".News.va. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  23. ^ "Intellect, pastoral skills seen as strength of Argentine primate"Catholic News Service. 1 April 2005. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  24. ^ Rocca, Francis X. (13 March 2013). "Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio: a profile"Catholic Herald. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  25. a b Lifschitz, Alejandro (13 March 2013). "Argentina's pope a modest man focused on the poor"Reuters. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  26. ^ "Pope Francis : Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio named new Pope"Baltimore News Journal. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  27. ^ Juan Manuel Jaime – José Luis Rolón. "Official Website, Facultades de Filosofía y Teología de San Miguel". Facultades-smiguel.org.ar. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
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  29. ^ "Neuigkeiten 14.03"Hochschule. Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen. Retrieved 14 March 2013. "...einige Monate in Sankt Georgen verbrachte, um sich mit einzelnen Professoren über ein Dissertationsprojekt zu beraten. Zu einem Abschluss in Sankt Georgen ist es nicht gekommen."
  30. ^ (Spanish) "Biografía de Jorge Bergoglio"El Litoral. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
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  33. ^ Jiménez, Pablo (14 March 2013). "The Pope's chalice: silver-made, austere and featuring Our Lady of Luján".Buenos Aires Herald. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  34. ^ The titular see of Auca, established in 1969, is seated atVillafranca Montes de Oca, Spain: Titular See of Auca, Spain.
  35. a b Poirier, José María (13 March 2013). "Quiet thunder in Argentina"The Catholic Herald. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  36. ^ "SYNODUS EPISCOPORUM BULLETIN, 30 September-27 October 2001"Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  37. a b c Allen, Jr., John L. (3 March 2013). "Who Is Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio? (renamed Profile: New pope, Jesuit Bergoglio, was runner-up in 2005 conclave)"National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
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  40. ^ "'Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit'". 17 April 2005. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
  41. ^ National Catholic Reporter: Electing a new pope April 11, 2005
  42. ^ "Cardinal breaks conclave vow of secrecy". Associated Press. CNN. 23 September 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  43. ^ Catholic News: Article based on diary says German cardinal became pope with 84 votes, 23 September 2005Article gives numbers for the four votes; Ratzinger had most votes, followed by Bergoglio.
  44. ^ "Ecco come andò davvero il Conclave del 2005 lastampa.it (Italian)"La Stampa. Retrieved 2013-03-13. According to the source, Cardinal Bergoglio begged "almost in tears" ("quasi in lacrime" in Italian)
  45. ^ Rocca, Francis X. (13 March 2013). "Next pope faces global challenges"Catholic San Francisco. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  46. ^ Rubin, Sergio (17 September 2007). "Regresó la misa en latín, con mujeres cubiertas por mantillas". Clarin.com. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  47. ^ "El latín volvió a las misas". Línea Capital. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  48. ^ Hernández, Vladimir (14 March 2013). "Pope Francis divides opinion in Argentina"BBC News. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  49. ^ REBELDES (13 March 2013). "Pope Francis and Argentina’s Dirty War"Latino Rebels. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
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  51. ^ Buenos Aires Herald March 14, 2013
  52. a b Schmall, Emily; Rother, Larry (13 March 2013). "A Conservative With a Common Touch"The New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  53. a b "Los Angeles Times: Argentine Cardinal Named in Kidnap Lawsuit, 17 April 2005"Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2005. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  54. a b "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. "Bergoglio – who ran Argentina's Jesuit order during the dictatorship – told Rubin that he regularly hid people on church property during the dictatorship, and once gave his identity papers to a man with similar features, enabling him to escape across the border."
  55. ^ Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images (1 November 2011). "Pope Francis: A look at the life of the first South American pontiff The Associated Press March 13, 2013"The Star-Ledger. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  56. ^ Verbitsky, Horacio (2005). El Silencio: De Paulo VI a Bergoglio: Las relaciones secretas de la Iglesia con la ESMA [The Silence: from Paulo VI to Bergoglio: secret relations of the Church with the ESMA] (2nd ed.). Buenos Aires: Sudamericana. ISBN 9500720353. (Spanish)
  57. ^ Horacio Verbitsky: Los signos del cardenal. In: Página/12, 2. Mai 2010. Abgerufen am 1. Januar 2011
  58. ^ "Pope Francis Is Known For Simplicity And Humility". Associated Press. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. "both men were freed after Bergoglio took extraordinary, behind-the-scenes action to save them – including persuading dictator Jorge Videla's family priest to call in sick so that he could say Mass in the junta leader's home, where he privately appealed for mercy."
  59. ^ "Bergoglio testifies regarding the kidnapped priests – LA NACION November 9, 2010". Lanacion.com.ar. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
  60. ^ Mariano Obarrio (May 27, 2004). "El mensaje de la Iglesia era para Kirchner [The message of the church was for Kirchner]" (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  61. ^ Lucas Colonna (May 24, 2005). "Suspendió la Iglesia el tedeum en la Capital [The church suspended the tedeum in the capital]" (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  62. a b c "Jorge Bergoglio y los Kirchner: años de una relación tensa [Jorge Bergoglio and the Kirchner: years of a tense relation]" (in Spanish). La Nación. March 14, 2013. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
  63. a b c d Hoffman, Matthew Cullinan (5 October 2007)."Cardinal Archbishop of Buenos Aires Rages Against Abortion "Death Sentence""LifeSiteNews. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  64. a b c d e f g "New Pope, Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina, has Jewish connections," JTA, 13 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013
  65. a b c d "Pope Francis 'a friend of the Islamic community,"Buenos Aires Herald, 14 March 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013
  66. ^ "FRANCISCUS". Holy See. 13 March 2013. Archived fromthe original on 13 March 2013. "Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum; habemus Papam: Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum Georgium MariumSanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem Bergoglioqui sibi nomen imposuit Franciscum"
  67. ^ "Habemus Papam! Cardinal Bergoglio Elected Pope Francis". News.va. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  68. ^ "Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina Named as New Pope of the Roman Catholic Church"CNBC. 13 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  69. ^ Michael Martinez, CNN Vatican analyst: Pope Francis' name choice 'precedent shattering'CNN (13 March 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  70. ^ David Batty. "Pope named after Francis of Assisi heralded by gull atop Sistine chimney | World news"The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
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  72. ^ Rice-Oxley, Mark. "Pope Francis: the humble pontiff with practical approach to poverty"The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  73. ^ Glauber, Bill. "Pope's name may connect to Jesuit roots – not Francis of Assisi"JSOnline. Journal Interactive Milwaukee. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  74. ^ On the day of his election, the Vatican clarified that his official papal name was Francis, not "Francis I". A Vatican spokesman said that the name would become Francis I if and when there is a Francis II. (Emily Alpert, Vatican: It's Pope Francis, not Pope Francis ILos Angeles Times (13 March 2013). Retrieved 13 March 2013.)
  75. ^ Pope John Paul I, elected in 1978, took a new combination of names, but he chose his names in honour of his two immediate predecessors, John XXIII and Paul VI. ([http://www.papaluciani.com/eng/conclave.htm The Conclave : August 25th – 26th, 1978).
  76. ^ La Nación newspaper, Buenos Aires. Jorge Bergoglio, the new pope. A lung problem does not keep him from working hard, 14 March 2013 (Spanish) Article gives details on Bergoglio's pneumonia and lung operation, citing the book El jesuita, by journalists Francesca Ambrogetti and Sergio Rubín.
  77. ^ Why Pope Francis Only Has One Lung | TIME.com
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