Health

Health

Blood Test and Blood Test Value Range

 

What Are Blood Tests?

Blood tests help doctors check for certain diseases and conditions. They also help check the function of your organs and show how well treatments are working.

Specifically, blood tests can help doctors:

  • Evaluate how well organs, like the kidneys, liver, and heart, are working
  • Diagnose diseases and conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes,anemia (uh-NEE-me-eh), and coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease)
  • Learn whether you have risk factors for heart disease
  • Check whether medicines you're taking are working

Overview

Blood tests are very common. When you have routine checkups, your doctor may recommend blood tests to see how your body is working.

Many blood tests don't require any special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Your doctor will let you know how to prepare for blood tests.

During a blood test, a small amount of blood is taken from your body. It's usually drawn from a vein in your arm using a needle. A finger prick also may be used. The procedure usually is quick and easy, although it may cause some short-term discomfort. Most people don't have serious reactions to having blood drawn.

Lab workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the fluid that contains them. This fluid is called plasma or serum.

The fluid is used to measure different substances in the blood. The results can help detect health problems in early stages, when treatments or lifestyle changes may work best.

However, blood tests alone can't be used to diagnose many diseases or medical problems. Your doctor may consider other factors, such as your signs and symptoms, your medical history, and results from other tests and procedures, to confirm a diagnosis.

Outlook

Blood tests have few risks. Most complications are minor and go away shortly after the tests are done.

Types of Blood Tests

Some of the most common blood tests are:

  • A complete blood count (CBC)
  • Blood chemistry tests
  • Blood enzyme tests
  • Blood tests to assess heart disease risk

Complete Blood Count

The CBC is one of the most common blood tests. It's often done as part of a routine checkup.

The CBC can help detect blood diseases and disorders, such as anemia, infections, clotting problems, blood cancers, and immune system disorders. This test measures many different parts of your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs.

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Abnormal red blood cell levels may be a sign of anemia, dehydration (too little fluid in the body), bleeding, or another disorder.

White Blood Cells

White blood cells are part of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign of infection, blood cancer, or an immune system disorder.

A CBC measures the overall number of white blood cells in your blood. A CBC with differential looks at the amounts of different types of white blood cells in your blood.

Platelets

Platelets (PLATE-lets) are blood cell fragments that help your blood clot. They stick together to seal cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.

Abnormal platelet levels may be a sign of a bleeding disorder (not enough clotting) or a thrombotic disorder (too much clotting).

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Abnormal hemoglobin levels may be a sign of anemia, sickle cell anemia,thalassemia (thal-a-SE-me-ah), or other blood disorders.

If you have diabetes, excess glucose in your blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c.

Hematocrit

Hematocrit (hee-MAT-oh-crit) is a measure of how much space red blood cells take up in your blood. A high hematocrit level might mean you're dehydrated. A low hematocrit level might mean you have anemia. Abnormal hematocrit levels also may be a sign of a blood or bone marrow disorder.

Mean Corpuscular Volume

Mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV) is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. Abnormal MCV levels may be a sign of anemia or thalassemia.

Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests usually are done on the fluid (plasma) part of blood. The tests can give doctors information about your muscles (including the heart), bones, and organs, such as the kidneys and liver.

The BMP includes blood glucose, calcium, and electrolyte tests, as well as blood tests that measure kidney function. Some of these tests require you to fast (not eat any food) before the test, and others don't. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the test(s) you're having.

Blood Glucose

Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Abnormal glucose levels in your blood may be a sign of diabetes.

For some blood glucose tests, you have to fast before your blood is drawn. Other blood glucose tests are done after a meal or at any time with no preparation.

Calcium

Calcium is an important mineral in the body. Abnormal calcium levels in the blood may be a sign of kidney problems, bone disease, thyroid disease, cancer, malnutrition, or another disorder.

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are minerals that help maintain fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body. They include sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride.

Abnormal electrolyte levels may be a sign of dehydration, kidney disease, liver disease, heart failure, high blood pressure, or other disorders.

Kidneys

Blood tests for kidney function measure levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (kre-AT-ih-neen). Both of these are waste products that the kidneys filter out of the body. Abnormal BUN and creatinine levels may be signs of a kidney disease or disorder.

Blood Enzyme Tests

Enzymes are chemicals that help control chemical reactions in your body. There are many blood enzyme tests. This section focuses on blood enzyme tests used to check for heart attack. These include troponin and creatine (KRE-ah-teen) kinase (CK) tests.

Troponin

Troponin is a muscle protein that helps your muscles contract. When muscle or heart cells are injured, troponin leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise.

For example, blood levels of troponin rise when you have a heart attack. For this reason, doctors often order troponin tests when patients have chest pain or other heart attack signs and symptoms.

Creatine Kinase

A blood product called CK-MB is released when the heart muscle is damaged. High levels of CK-MB in the blood can mean that you've had a heart attack.

Blood Tests To Assess Heart Disease Risk

A lipoprotein panel is a blood test that can help show whether you're at risk forcoronary heart disease (CHD). This test looks at substances in your blood that carry cholesterol.

A lipoprotein panel gives information about your:

  • Total cholesterol.
  • LDL ("bad") cholesterol. This is the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockages in the arteries. (For more information about blockages in the arteries, go to the Diseases and Conditions Index Atherosclerosis article.)
  • HDL ("good") cholesterol. This type of cholesterol helps decrease blockages in the arteries.
  • Triglycerides. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood.

A lipoprotein panel measures the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be signs of increased risk for CHD.

Most people will need to fast for 9 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein panel.

Key Points

  • Blood tests help doctors check for certain diseases and conditions. They also help check the function of your organs and show how well treatments are working.
  • Blood tests are very common. When you have routine checkups, your doctor may recommend blood tests to see how your body is working.
  • Some of the most common blood tests are a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry tests, blood enzyme tests, and blood tests to assess heart disease risk.
    • A CBC can detect blood diseases and disorders.
    • Blood chemistry tests measure different chemicals in the blood. These tests give doctors information about nerves, muscles (including the heart), bones, and organs, such as the kidneys and liver.
    • Blood enzyme tests measure the amounts of certain enzymes in your blood. These tests can help diagnose a heart attack.
    • Blood tests to assess heart disease risk measure substances in your blood that may show whether you're at increased risk for coronary heart disease.
  • Many blood tests don't require any special preparation and take only a few minutes. Other blood tests require fasting (not eating any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Your doctor will let you know how to prepare for blood tests.
  • During a blood test, blood usually is drawn from a vein in your arm or other part of your body using a needle. It also can be drawn using a finger prick. Drawing blood usually takes less than 3 minutes.
  • Once the needle is withdrawn, you'll be asked to apply gentle pressure with a piece of gauze or bandage to the place where the needle was inserted. This helps stop bleeding. Most often, you can remove the pressure after a minute or two.
  • The main risks of blood tests are discomfort or bruising at the site where the needle goes in. These complications usually are minor and go away shortly after the tests are done.
  • Your doctor will get the results of your blood test(s) and discuss them with you. Blood tests show whether the levels of different substances in your blood fall within a normal range. Your doctor should discuss any unusual or abnormal results with you.

What To Expect With Blood Tests

What To Expect Before Blood Tests

Many blood tests don't require any special preparation and take only a few minutes.

Other blood tests require fasting (not eating any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for your blood test(s).

What To Expect During Blood Tests

Blood usually is drawn from a vein in your arm or other part of your body using a needle. It also can be drawn using a finger prick.

The person who draws your blood might tie a band around the upper part of your arm or ask you to make a fist. Doing this can make the veins in your arm stick out more, which makes it easier to insert the needle.

The needle that goes into your vein is attached to a small test tube. The person who draws your blood removes the tube when it's full, and the tube seals on its own. The needle is then removed from your vein. If you're getting a few blood tests, more than one test tube may be attached to the needle before it's withdrawn.

Some people get nervous about blood tests because they're afraid of needles. Others may not want to see blood leaving their bodies.

If you're nervous or scared, it can help to look away or talk to someone to distract yourself. You might feel a slight sting when the needle goes in or comes out.

Drawing blood usually takes less than 3 minutes.

What To Expect After Blood Tests

Once the needle is withdrawn, you'll be asked to apply gentle pressure with a piece of gauze or bandage to the place where the needle was inserted. This helps stop bleeding. It also helps prevent swelling and bruising.

Most of the time, you can remove the pressure after a minute or two. You may want to keep a bandage on for a few hours.

Usually, you don't need to do anything else after a blood test. Results can take anywhere from a few minutes to a few weeks to come back. Your doctor should get the results. It's important that you follow up with your doctor to discuss your test results.

 

What Do Blood Tests Show?

Blood tests show whether the levels of different substances in your blood fall within a normal range.

For many blood substances, the normal range is the range of levels seen in95 percent of healthy people in a certain group. For many tests, normal ranges are different depending on your age, gender, race, and other factors.

Many factors can cause your blood test levels to fall outside the normal range. Abnormal levels may be a sign of a disorder or disease. Other factors—such as diet, menstrual cycle, how much physical activity you do, how much alcohol you drink, and the medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter)—also can cause abnormal levels.

Your doctor should discuss any unusual or abnormal blood test results with you. These results may or may not suggest a health problem.

Blood tests alone can't be used to diagnose many diseases or medical problems. However, blood tests can help you and your doctor learn more about your health. Blood tests also can help find potential problems early, when treatments or lifestyle changes may work best.

What Are the Risks of Blood Tests?

The main risks of blood tests are discomfort and bruising at the site where the needle goes in. These complications usually are minor and go away shortly after the tests are done

 

Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests

This section presents the result ranges for some of the most common blood tests.

NOTE: All values in this section are for adults only. They don't apply to children. Talk to your child's doctor about values on blood tests for children.

Complete Blood Count

The table below shows some normal ranges for different parts of the complete blood count (CBC). Some of the normal ranges are different for men and women. Other factors, such as age and race, also may affect normal ranges.

Your doctor should discuss your results with you. He or she will advise you further if your results are outside the normal range for your group.

Test

Normal Range Results*

Red blood cell (varies with altitude)

Male: 5 to 6 million cells/mcL


Female: 4 to 5 million cells/mcL

White blood cell

4,500 to 10,000 cells/mcL

Platelets

140,000 to 450,000 cells/mcL

Hemoglobin (varies with altitude)

Male: 14 to 17 gm/dL


Female: 12 to 15 gm/dL

Hematocrit (varies with altitude)

Male: 41% to 50%


Female: 36% to 44%

Mean corpuscular volume

80 to 95 femtoliter

* Cells/mcL = cells per microliter; gm/dL = grams per deciliter

Blood Glucose

This table shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes.

Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)*

Diagnosis

99 and below

Normal

100 to 125

Prediabetes

126 and above

Diabetes

* mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter. 
 The test is repeated on another day to confirm the results.

Lipoprotein Panel

The table below shows ranges for total cholesterol, LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and HDL ("good") cholesterol levels after 9 to 12 hours of fasting. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary heart disease.

Your doctor should discuss your results with you. He or she will advise you further if your results are outside the desirable range.

Total Cholesterol Level

Total Cholesterol Category

Less than 200 mg/dL

Desirable

200–239 mg/dL

Borderline high

240 mg/dL and above

High

 

LDL Cholesterol Level

LDL Cholesterol Category

Less than 100 mg/dL

Optimal

100–129 mg/dL

Near optimal/above optimal

130–159 mg/dL

Borderline high

160–189 mg/dL

High

190 mg/dL and above

Very high

 

HDL Cholesterol Level

HDL Cholesterol Category

Less than 40 mg/dL

A major risk factor for heart disease

40–59 mg/dL

The higher, the better

60 mg/dL and above

Considered protective against heart disease

 

.Links to Other Information About Blood Tests

NHLBI Resources

Non-NHLBI Resources


 

 

 

 

Kerala Rapid Healthcare Access Systems

Kerala Rapid Healthcare Access Systems


Kerala has rolled out extensive E-Governance in Healthcare facility, by launching Dr.SMS. Patients can log to their portal[14] to identify the right ambulatory services.

  • For SMS based support, one can input Health<space> Pincode <space> facility in their local mobile connection to receive details of key hospital of the intended facility in the district. To identify contact details of the hospital, SMS inputHealth<space>HospitalName. All such inputs must be send to Toll-Free SMS Center No- 537252

Rapid Access-Toll Free from all devices

  • 102 - DHS-Kerala
  • 1298 or 108 - Kerala Emergency Medical Services
  • 1910 - State Emergency Blood Bank Network
  • 1911 - Call Doctor- State Medical Call Center
  • 1097 - AIDS Control Society

ovarian cancer

Blood test may help spot ovarian cancer early

Washington: Scientists have developed a new screening strategy for ovarian cancer that can accurately detect the disease before it becomes lethal.

There currently are no established screening strategies for ovarian cancer. The disease often causes no specific symptoms and is difficult to detect in the early stages when it is most responsive to treatment.

Therefore, ovarian cancer is highly lethal because most women have advanced disease when they are diagnosed.

Karen Lu, of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, led a team that tested the potential of a two-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy that incorporates changes in a blood protein called CA125, which is a known tumour marker.

In their 11-year study, 4051 post- menopausal women initially underwent an annual CA125 blood test.

Based on a calculation called the "Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm," women were divided into three groups: those who should receive another CA125 test one year later (low risk), those who should receive a repeat CA125 in three months (intermediate risk), and those who should receive a transvaginal ultrasound and be referred to a gynecologic oncologist (high risk).

An average of 5.8 per cent of women were found to be of intermediate risk each year, meaning that they should receive a CA125 test in three months.

Ten women underwent surgery based on their ultrasound exams, with four having invasive ovarian cancers, two having ovarian tumours of low malignant potential, one having endometrial cancer, and three having benign ovarian tumours.

The specificity of the testing strategy was 99.9 per cent, meaning that only 0.1 per cent of patients without cancer would be falsely identified as having the disease. Importantly, all of the ovarian cancers were early stage.


 

For more http://zeenews.india.com/news/health/health-news/blood-test-may-help-spot-ovarian-cancer-early_23586.html

Kerala sadya

Sadhya

One of the favourite for any connoisseur of food would be Kerala's traditional buffet, the sadhya. It is served especially during festive occasion and normally presented upon a plaintain leaf. It generally has up to 24 items and is accompanied by various desserts and savories.

Kerala sadya

A typical sadhya consists of piping hot parboiled rice with popular Kerala vegetarian dishes like

  • olan (a dish of pumpkin)
  • avial (an assorted mix of all vegetables)
  • injipulee (a ginger & tamarind flavouring)
  • kaalan (made of yam and yogurt)
  • thoran (pan-fried vegetables sprinkled with grated coconut)
  • kichiadi (roasted cucumber in yogurt)
  • pachadi (a sweet dish made out pineapple or grapes mixed with sour yogurt)
  • erissery (pumpkin or beans cooked in thick coconut paste)
  • mezhukkupuratty (Stir fries using marinated various vegetables, tossed with chilies )
  • istew ( Stew curry of Potato or mixed vegetables cooked in thick coconut milk )
  • kottukari (a mixture of few vegetables like raw bananas or pumpkin or potatoes, pan fried mixed with a spicy tomato puree curry base) etc.

In some sadhyas, options like masala curryvegetable special curries are served.

The sambar (a watery all-Vegetable curry) and parippu (lentils, either mashed or curry form) along with ghee are served as the main entrée'. Normally 2 to 3 spicy pickles called as achar are served.

Other assortments include pappadam (fried Lentil-flour paper-thin bread), along with banana chips and jaggery sweet, served as main appetisers. Towards the end of sadhya, rasam (similar to mulligatawny soup made out of pepper and tomato water is served, which is good for digestion) as well as mooru or sambharam (spiced buttermilk) are served.

Bananas are also taken as a final note to end the elobrate sadhya's main course. The desserts includes payasam (a sweet porridge-like, made of jaggery or sugar along with rice, cereals, fruits depending on what type of payasam) as well as boli, a sweet flour bread, which looks similar to an omelet, along with a banana and sometimesunniappam (sweet fried rice flour dumpling).

Normally sadyas are served on lunch time and normally will be pure vegetarian. Onasadhya (served on the Onam day) is the most famous, due to having more than 30 curries and an elobrate range of special payasams. Many leading hotels and restaurants now serve smaller versions of sadhya as part of a regular lunch offering. In Malabar, sometimes, fried-fish or chicken curry constitute part of the sadhya, as the Malabar sadhya does not have a vegetarian tradition.

Ali Hussain - a 14 year old with 110 year old body

 

 

New Delhi: A boy born with the appearance and physical maladies of an old man – the story sounds familiar. After all most of us have seen `The curious case of Benjamin Button`, a film directed by David Fincher in 2008 which is loosely based on F Scott Fitzgerald`s 1922 short story of the same name, said to be one of the earliest literary pieces to have highlighted progeria, an extremely rare genetic disease characterised by rapid ageing.

Closer home in India, the condition was highlighted by R Balakrishnan in the 2009 Bollywood film `Paa` with Abhishek Bachchan as the lead protagonist diagnosed with the disorder.

Unlike the films in which the lives of the lead protagonists are made-up, kids born with this rare genetic disorder have dramatically tougher lives.

Ali Hussain Khan`s story is no different. The fourteen year old teenager from Bihar suffers from the rare disorder which causes rapid ageing and is known to affect just 80 people worldwide.

Ali, whose body ages eight times faster than normal, has seen five of his siblings die from the same genetic condition.

Ali’s parents Nabi Hussain Khan, 50, and Razia, 46, are first cousins and have had eight children in total. Only two of the girls out of eight were born healthy.

Progeria or Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disease wherein symptoms resembling aspects of ageing are manifested at a very early age. The disorder has a very low incident rate, occurring in an estimated 1 per 8 million live births. Children born with the rare disorder live only till their mid teens and early twenties.

Children with progeria usually develop the first symptoms during their first few months, characterised by changes in skin, abnormal growth and loss of hair. There has been no significant breakthrough in the treatment of this disease or reversing the symptoms of aging.

Additional information

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