Connecting Malayali


Kerala with a literacy rate of 90.90%, stands first among other Indian states. Recognizing the need for a literate population and provision of elementary education as a crucial input for nation building, the state government with the backing of the central government, launched a number of plans and programmes over the past years to facilitate the provision of free and compulsory education with satisfactory quality to all children at least up to the age of 14 years. 'Akshara Keralam' Project introduced in the early 1990s was one such project initiated with the aim of bringing the the maximum number of illiterates to schools and other study centres. This project was implemented in different phases throughout the state. Apart from this, a number ofgovernment organizations and voluntary associations under various schemes and services, conduct classes ( mainly evening classes ) for the illiterate adults. Such classes are held throughout the rural and backward areas of the state where educational institutions were absent in the yesteryears or for those who were unable attain elementary education in their childhood or later. The literacy rate in the urban areas is slightly greater than in the rural areas. As per the norms of National Literacy Mission, a literacy rate above 90 % shall be treated as complete literacy. On this basis, Kerala was declared a, 'Fully Literate State', on April 18th, 1991



Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. In its narrow, technical sense, education is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another, e.g., instruction in schools.

Systems of schooling

Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system.

Purpose of schools

Examples of the purpose of schools include develop reasoning about perennial questions, master the methods of scientific inquiry, cultivate the intellect, create positive change agents, develop spirituality, and model a democratic society.


In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard.

An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.

Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curriculums or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine arts are music, dance, and theater

Primary school


Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six, although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally, around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and this proportion is rising.[6] Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Some education systems have separate middle schools, with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Schools that provide primary education, are mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.

Secondary school


In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period, or a part of it, may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United States, Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education, and in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession.

The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910, caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance, the emergence of electrification), that required skilled workers. In order to meet this new job demand, high schools were created and the curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. This proved to be beneficial for both the employer and the employee, because this improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient, which lowered costs for the employer, and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment.

In Europe, the grammar school or academy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee-paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longer history.

Indigenous education

Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems. Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to “reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students.

Alternative education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods.

Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, homeschooling and autodidacticism vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community.

Alternative education may also allow for independent learning and engaging class activities.

Systems of higher education

Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.

Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.



University systems

University education includes teaching, research and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities are generally composed of several colleges.

Universities in Kerala

Like elsewhere, the Universities in Kerala provides opportunities for students to specialize in fields of science (physics, chemistry, geology, biology, astronomy), social science (anthropology, psychology, sociology, economics), the humanities (history, philosophy, literature, languages), the creative arts (painting, music, dance, drama), and more.In addition, universities prepare students to enter particular occupations--to become architects, engineers, doctors, teachers, lawyers, agricultural experts, accountants, business administrators, and the like. All the colleges in Kerala are affiliated to one of the 7 universities in the state.

There are Seven Universities in Kerala which grand affiliation to both Arts and Science Colleges and Professional Colleges. They are :

Name of University         

1.University of Calicut

            1968    Thenjippalam,Malappuram


2. Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT)     

1971    Kalamasserry,


3 .Kannur University  


4.University of Kerala

1957    Thiruvananthapuram


5.Mahatma Gandhi University

            1983    Athirampuzha,



 6.Kerala Agricultural University

            1971    Vellanikkara, Thrissur

7.Sree Shankarachaarya University of Sanskrit

            1994    Kaalady,



   8.Shree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology               Thiruvananthapuram

Schools in Kerala

 Schools in kerala

Schools Kerala

Schooling has been conducted in three different stages - Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary. In Kerala, there were 12,310 schools in 1999-2000 having 6726 lower primary (LP) schools, 2968 upper primary (UP) schools and 2580 high schools. Kerala schools posses better physical and basic facilities compared to those in other parts of India. 83% of schools are housed in proper buildings, 84% of Government schools have drinking water facilities and 85% have urinals / latrine facilities.

Primary Education
It consists of 2 levels, lower primary (Std I - IV) and Upper Primary (std V to VII). This comprises the biggest segment of the states education system. Almost every village has more than five primary schools. There are 6,726 lower primary and 2,968 upper primary schools. Of the primary schools 61.07% are private aided, 2.98% are private unaided and 35.95% are government schools.

Secondary Education
A substantial increase of secondary schools was found in Kerala, i.e.., during 1996-97 there were 2,580 secondary schools as against 895 in 1960-61. These include 975 Government schools (37.67%), 1,400 private aided schools (54.1%) and 213 private unaided schools (8.23%).

Higher Secondary Education
There are 931 higher secondary schools (HSS) of which 417 are in government sector, 506 in aided sector and 8 in unaided sector. The H.S.S intake increased from 20,092 in 1997 to 1,65,600 in 2000. Girl students constitutes 58%. In 1997-98 pre-degree courses in 26 Government colleges have been de linked and higher secondary courses have been sanctioned in 103 government schools.

Vocational Higher Secondary Education
It was formally introduced in Kerala at the higher secondary level (+2 stage) in 1983-84. There are 322 VHS School (231 Govt. & 91 Private) handling 814 schools of Vocational courses in 45 subjects. Subjects are related to agriculture ( livestock management and fisheries), health and paramedical service, business and commerce, home science and humanities and service sectors in engineering and technology. Clothing and embroidery, cosmetology and management of beauty parlours, creche-pre-school management are courses exclusively for girls.

Education of the disabled
There are 23 recognized special schools for the disabled and about 3,000 children study in them. They are managed mostly by charity agencies like the Kerala Federation of the Blind.

Additional information

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